Safety in demolitions: regulations, techniques and actions to be carried out

The demolition of works concerns the dismantling of industrial plants and the complete demolition of buildings with special equipment or with the use of explosives , the cutting of reinforced concrete structures and demolitions in general, including the collection of waste materials , their separation and any recycling in the component industry.

Legislative Decree 81/2008 and demolitions

In Section VIII, which are part of the demolitions, and in particular, Article 150 of Legislative Decree 81/2008 and subsequent amendments, we are talking about the strengthening of the structures:

  • before the demolition works are started, it is necessary to check the conditions of conservation and stability of the various structures to be demolished;
  • in relation to the result of this verification, reinforcement and shoring works must be carried out to prevent unforeseen collapses occurring during demolition.

In the art. 151 of Legislative Decree 81/2008 and subsequent amendments, we are talking about the demolition order and it is said that demolition work must proceed with caution and order, which must be carried out under the supervision of a provost and carried out in such a way as to do not affect the stability of the supporting or connecting structures and any adjacent structures.

The succession of works must result from a specific program contained in the operational safety plan (POS) , taking into account the provisions of the safety and coordination plan (PSC) , where envisaged, which must be kept at the disposal of the supervisory bodies.

>>> Site Safety: Guide to Security Plans 2.0, the definitive tool

In the art.152 of the D.Lgs.81 / 2008 and smi, the demolition of the walls effected with manual equipments must be made using bridges of service independent from the work in demolition. It is forbidden to work and to make workers work on the walls in demolition , when there are walls with a height of less than 2 meters there are no obligations listed here.

In the art. 153 of Legislative Decree 81/2008 and subsequent amendments, the Legislator clarifies where the demolition material must be conveyed:

  • the demolition material must not be thrown from above, but must be transported or conveyed into special channels, the lower end of which must not be more than two meters above the level of the collection table;
  • the aforesaid channels must be constructed in such a way that each trunk enters the next trunk;
  • any fittings must be adequately reinforced;
  • the upper mouth of the channel must be designed in such a way that people can not fall into it accidentally;
  • where it is made up of heavy or bulky items, the demolition material must be lowered to the ground by suitable means.

During demolition work, it is necessary to reduce the lifting of dust by spraying the masonry and the resulting materials with water. In the art. 154 of D.Lgs.81 / 2008 and smi, we speak of the damming of the demolition zone, or, in the area below the demolition must be forbidden to stop and transit, delimiting the area with special barriers.

L ‘ access to the outlet of the exhaust channels for the loading and transport of the material accumulated should be permitted only after it has been suspended from the top discharge. Article. 155 of Legislative Decree 81/2008 and smi mentions the “demolition by overturning”:

  • the demolition of parts of structures having height above the ground of not more than 5 meters can be carried out by means of overturning by traction or by thrust;
  • the traction or thrust must be applied gradually and without tears and must only be carried out on structural elements suitably insulated from the rest of the building in demolition so as not to cause untimely or unforeseen collapses of other parts;
  • the necessary precautions for the safety of the work must also be adopted, such as: traction from a distance of no less than one and a half times the height of the wall or structure to knock down and remove the workers from the area in question;
  • the overturning by thrust can be carried out with jacks only for works of height not exceeding 3 meters, with the aid of subsidiary props against the return of the moved elements;
  • in any case, it must be avoided that due to the shaking of the ground due to the fall of the structures or large blocks, damage or injury to nearby buildings or adjacent works dangerous for the workers involved may result.

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