In the last years during the demolition operations in the building sector, in the province of Cosenza there have been some accidents, one of which was fatal in the territory of the former AS1 of Paola (now ASP).
Demolitions in construction are among the most dangerous jobs for workers, just think that in the national field, 50% of accidents occurred is fatal. The main risk factors to which workers are exposed can be summarized as: risks due to burial due to untimely collapse, falling from above, falling material from above, shocks, cuts etc.
It is clear that the demolitions carried out with the use of mechanical means or with the explosive have a risk exposure far less than those performed manually and it is to the latter that we will devote our interest from the point of view of safety, structural and legal.
It is specified that in this article we will not discuss the removal of asbestos cement materials in a building structure, this topic will be dealt with in the next issue.
It is necessary to clarify that demolitions are not standardized activities for which it is advisable to evaluate the individual sites from site to site.
The demolition of a building can be total or partial; the first one is aimed, in general, at the recovery of the area for the subsequent reuse, while the second one is aimed at recovering the building for a simple rehabilitation or for a transformation.
Many technicians still do not have a clear idea of what needs to be done so that a demolition can be carried out in compliance with the legislation on hygiene and safety in the workplace.
When demolition operations are to be carried out, it is necessary to assess the risks that may involve workers and ensure that these risks can be eliminated and, if not possible, reduced.
The reference legislation is Tit IV Section VIII of Legislative Decree 81/08 .
In this regard, it should be noted that the technician appointed for the demolition work must ascertain whether the intervention is carried out by one or more companies in order to evaluate the application of the art. 90, paragraph 3, Legislative Decree 81/08.
In the event that the works should be performed by a single company, it is appropriate that the employer draws up the POS referred to in art. 89, paragraph 1, letter h ).
If the works are public and they do not fall within the application of Article 90, paragraph 3 of Legislative Decree 81/08, the employer of the contracting company will have to prepare the PSS.
Stages of work
Before describing the various stages of work, remember that it is necessary to carry out a check to ascertain the conditions of conservation and stability of the structure to be demolished, as stated in art.150, paragraph 1, D.Ls 81/08 .
When the demolition to be carried out is not of considerable extension, it is necessary to delimit the affected area with appropriate barriers and suitable signage to avoid the stop and the transit in the aforementioned area in accordance with art.154, paragraph 1, D.Lgs 81/08 .
The processing phases can be summarized as follows: installation of the building site; assembly and disassembly of metal scaffolding; cover removal; dismantling superstructures and demolition structures.
1. Construction of the building site
In demolition work, the building site must be set up in the same way as for the construction of a building. The construction site area must be fenced with wooden fences, sheet metal or orange nets.